ISERN Bibliography


Contents
ISERN Fundamentals
Annotated Bibliography
ISERN Technical Reports

Database on ISERN related literature


ISERN Fundamentals


1. F. Abbattista, F. Lanubile, G. Mastelloni, and G. Visaggio,
`An experiment on the effect of design recording on impact analysis`,
Proceedings of International Conference on Software Maintenance, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1994.
A controlled experiment is presented in which participants perform impact analysis on alternate forms of design record information. The goal is to assess if increasing levels of design recording improve the performance of maintainers when a change is required.

2. V. R. Basili and H. D. Rombach,
`The TAME Project: Towards Improvement-Oriented Software Environments`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-14, no. 6, June 1988, pp.758–773.
Provides a fairly comprehensive description of the GQM paradigm. Basili`s experience in software engineering experimentation is summarized as a set of 10 software engineering and 14 measurement principles. Half of the software engineering principles address the need for developing quality a priori, and half address the need for tailoring the process for different environments. The TAME model is based on improvement by learning.

3. V.R. Basili,
`The experimental paradigm in software engineering`,
Experimental Software Engineering Issues: A critical Assesment and future directions, pp3–12, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Nr. 706, Springer-Verlag, 1993

4. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`The Goal Question Metric Approach`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.528–532.
This article presents a quick overview of the GQM approach.

5. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`The Experience Factory`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.469–476.
This article presents a quick overview of the Experiency Factory. EF is an infrastructure aimed at capitalization and reuse of life cycle experience and products.

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6. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`Measurement`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.646–661.

7. M. Oivo and V. R. Basili.
`Representing Software Engineering Models: The TAME Goal Oriented Approach,`
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol 18, no. 10, October 1992, pp. 886–898.
This paper describes a methodology for top down goal oriented characterization, modeling and execution of software engineering activities. A prototype system (ES-TAME) is described which provides an object-oriented meta-model concept for supporting tailorable and reusable software engineering models. They are controlled and made operational by active GQM models which are built by a systematic mechanism for defining and evaluating project and corporate goals and using measurement to provide feedback in real-time.

8. M. Oivo.
`Quantitative management of software production using object-oriented models,`
VTT Publications 169, ISBN 951–38–4407–2, Espoo, March 1994, 72 pages + app. 67 pages.
A methodology and techniques for a model-based framework for quantitative manage ment of software production are presented. Two systems demonstrate the feasibility of automating and integrating such models to support the approach. Prospex assists in embedded computer software analysis and design. It can be used to measure the quality and correctness of design documents. ES TAME supports both GQM models and multiview models of software processes, products, design methods, resource models, etc.

9. G. Visaggio,
`Process improvement through reuse`,
IEEE Software, July, 1994.

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Annotated Bibliography



1. F. Abbattista, F. Lanubile and G. Visaggio,
`Recovering conceptual data model is human-intensive`,
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Enginee ring, San Francisco, California, 1993.
A method for data reverse engineering is proposed which integrates automatic tools with an intensive use of human intervention. The method is experimented with a banking application by recovering the conceptual model of data and the data dictionary.

2. F. Abbattista, G.M.G. Fatone, F. Lanubile and G. Visaggio,
`Analyzing the application of a reverse engineering process to a real situation`,
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Program Comprehension, Washington, D.C., 1994.
A reverse engineering process model is applied on a banking information system. After the experimentation on the field, the process model is modified to improve its efficacy.

3. A. Auer, M. Levanto, A. Okkonen and J. Okkonen.
`Solution in Software Crisis`,
Proc. 16th Euromicro Symposium, Amsterdam, Holland, August 1990.

4. John Bailey and Victor R. Basili,
`A Meta-Model for Software Development Resource Expenditures`,
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Software Engineering, March 1981, pp 107–116.

5. John Bailey and Victor Basili,
`Software Reclamation: Improving Post-Development Reusability`,
8th National Conference on Ada Technology, Atlanta, GA, March 1990.

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6. John Bailey and Victor R. Basili,
`The Software-Cycle Model for Re-engineering and Reuse`,
presented at TRI-Ada Conference, San Jose, CA, October 1991.

7. Ballman, Karla and Votta, Lawrence G.,
`Organizational Congestion in Large Scale Software Development`,
Third International Conference on Software Process, Oct. 1994, pp 123–134, (Unrevised version published as BL0112650–940801–29TM.)

8. Victor R. Basili and Albert. J. Turner,
`Iterative Enhancement: A Practical Technique for Software Development`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 1, #4, December 1975 (update appears as Portfolio 14–01–05, Auerbach Information Management Series 1978).

9. Victor R. Basili and Marvin V. Zelkowitz,
`Measuring Software Development Characteristics in the Local Environment`,
Journal of Computers and Structures, vol. 10, pp 39–43, 1979.

10. Victor R. Basili, and Robert W. Reiter,
`Evaluating Automatable Measures for Software Development`,
Proceedings of the Workshop on Quantitative Software Models for Reliability, Complexity and Cost, IEEE publication, October 1979.

11. Victor R. Basili and Robert Reiter, Jr.,
`An Investigation of Human Factors in Software Development`,
IEEE Computer Magazine, December 1979, pp 21–38.

12. Victor R. Basili,
`Models and Metrics for Software Management and Engineering`,
Proceedings of ASME Century International Computer Technology Conference, August 1980 (invited paper).

13. Victor R. Basili and David Weiss,
`Evaluation of the A-7 Requirements Document by Analysis of Change Date`,
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Software Engineering, March 1981, pp 314–323.

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14. Victor R. Basili and Robert Reiter, Jr.,
`A Controlled Experiment Quantitatively Comparing Software Development Approaches`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, May 1981, pp 299–320 (IEEE Computer Society Outstanding Paper Award).

15. V. Basili and D. H. Hutchens.
`An empirical study of a syntactic complexity family`,
IEEE TOSE, 9(6):652–663. 1983.
Contains a description of a generic schema for defining structural metrics, and describes the statistical validation of a particular instance of a metric defined by this schema, namely `Syn C?`.

16. Victor R. Basili and Elizabeth Katz,
`Metrics of Interest in an Ada Development`,
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Technology Transfer, April 1983, pp 22–29.

17. V. Basili and B. T. Perricone.
`Sofware errors and complexity: an empirical investigation`,
CACM, 27(1):42–52, 1984.
Analyses distributions and relationships derived from software changes data.

18. Victor R. Basili and Richard W. Selby,
`Data Collection and Analysis in Software Research and Management`,
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association July 1984 (invited paper).

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19. V. R. Basili and D. M. Weiss.
`A Methodology for Collecting Valid Software Engineering Data`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-10, no. 6, November 1984, pp.728–738.
This is directed at large-scale data-collection. It describes a goal-oriented methodology for evaluating software development methodologies and for studying the software development process.

20. Victor R. Basili and Richard W. Selby,
`Calculation and Use of an Environments Characteristic Software Metric Set`,
IEEE 8th International Conference on Software Engineering, London, England, August 1985.

21. Victor R. Basili,
`Quantitative Evaluation of Software Methodology`,
Keynote Address, First Pan Pacific Computer Conference, Melbourne, Australia, September, 1985.

22. Victor R. Basili, Richard Selby and David Hutchens,
`Experimentation in Software Engineering`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 12(7):733–743, July 1986 (invited paper).
Presents a framework for analysing experimental work.

23. V. R. Basili and H. D. Rombach,
`Tailoring the Software Process to Project Goals and Environments`,
Proc. 9th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Monterey, CA, USA, 1987, pp.345–357.

24. Victor R. Basili and Richard Selby,
`Comparing the Effectiveness of Software Testing Strategies`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, December 1987, pp 1278–1296.

25. V. R. Basili and H. D. Rombach,
`The TAME Project: Towards Improvement-Oriented Software Environments`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering}, vol. SE-14, no. 6, June 1988, pp.758–773.
Provides a fairly comprehensive description of the GQM paradigm. Basili`s experience in software engineering experimentation is summarized as a set of 10 software engineering and 14 measurement principles. Half of the software engineering principles address the need for developing quality a priori, and half address the need for tailoring the process for different environments. The TAME model is based on improvement by learning.

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26. V. R. Basili,
`Software Development: A Paradigm for the Future`,
Proc. 13th Annual International Computer Software & Applications Conference, Orlando, FL, September 20–22, 1989, pp.471–485.

27. Victor R. Basili,
`Viewing Maintenance as Reuse-Oriented Software Development`,
IEEE Software, January 1990, pp 19–15.

28. V. R. Basili et al.,
`The Software Engineering Laboratory – An Operational Software Experience Factory`,
Proc. 14th International Conference on Software Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, May 1991.

29. Victor R. Basili and John Musa,
`The Future Engineering of Software: A Management Perspective`,
IEEE Computer Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 9, pp 90–96, September, 1991.

30. Victor R. Basili and Richard W. Selby,
`Paradigms for Experimentation and Empirical Studies in Software Engineering`,
Reliability Engineering and System Safety, vol. 32, no. 1–2, pp. 171–193, l991.

31. V. R. Basili and H. D. Rombach,
`Support for Comprehensive Reuse`,
IEE Software Engineering Journal, Butterworth, UK, 1991, pp. 303–316.

32. Victor R. Basili, Gianluigi Caldiera, Frank Mc Garry?, Rose Pajersky, Gerald Page, Sharon Waligora,
`The Software Engineering Laboratory -An Operational Software Experience Factory`,
14th International Conference on Software Engineering, May 1992.
This papers provides an good overview of the SEL and of the results in the last 15 years of application of the QIP approach. For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of undertanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ Goddart Space Fligh Center (NASA/GSFC).

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33. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera, and G. Cantone,
,A Reference Architecture for the Component Factory`,
ACM TOSEM}, vol.1, no.1, 1992 [also available as Technical Report, University of Maryland, 1991].

34. Victor R. Basili,
`The Experience Factory and its Relationship to Other Improvement Paradigms`,
Lecture Notes in Computer Science 717, Software Engineering ESEC`93, 4th European Software Engineering Conference Garmish-Partenkirchen, Germany, September 1993 Proceedings.

35. Victor R. Basili,
`Applying the Goal / Question / Metric? Paradigm in the Experience Factory`,
Tenth Annual Workshop, CSR – Centre for Software Reliability, Application of Software Metrics and Qua lity Assurance in Industry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 29th September – 1st October, 1993.

36. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`The Goal Question Metric Approach`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.528–532.
This article presents a quick overview of the GQM approach.

37. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`The Experience Factory`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.469–476.
This article presents a quick overview of the Experiency Factory. EF is an infrastrucutre aimed at capitalization and reuse of life cycle experience and products.

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38. V. R. Basili, G. Caldiera and H. D. Rombach,
`Measurement`,
in Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (John J. Marciniak, Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994, Vol. 1, pp.646–661.

39. Victor R. Basili, Michael Daskalantonakis and Robert Yacobellis,
`Effective Tailoring and Transfer of the Software Review Process`,
IEEE Software Magazine, pp 70–76, March 1994.
While developing a formal software-review process, a working group at Motorola devised a technology transfer model that is built on process packages, each one targeted to a different user group. Their model allows for tailoring, makdes training and consulting widely available, and relies on champions.

40. Victor R. Basili and Scott Green,
`Software Process Evolution at the SEL`,
IEEE Software, 11(4):58–66,July 1994.
Most of this paper presents the results of the Clearoom experiment realized in the SEL The SEL has been adapting, analysing, and evolving software processes for the last 18 years. Their approach is based on the Quality Improvement Paradigm, which is used to evaluate process effects on both product and people.

41. Basili, Victor and Porter, Adam and Votta, Lawrence G.,
`Comparing Detection Methods for Software Requirements Inspections: a Replicated Experiment`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 1995,(Unrevised version published as BL0112650–940429–15TM.) To be published in 1995.

42. Victor Basili, Lionel Briand, Walcelio L. Melo,
`Measuring the Impact of Reuse on Software Quality and Productivity`,
Accepted for publication in the Communication of ACM. [Also available as a Technical Report, University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science, College Park, MD, 20770. January 1995. CS-TR-3395 ].
This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which we assessed the impact of reuse on quality and productivity in OO systems. Reuse is assumed to be a very effective strategy for software industry to build high-quality software. However, there is currently very little empirical information about what we can expect from reuse in terms of productivity and quality gains. This also applies to OO development which is supposed to facilitate reuse. Our experiment is one step towards a better understanding of the benefits of reuse in an OO framework, considering currently available technology. Data was collected, for four months, on the development of eight medium-size management information systems with equivalent requirements. All eight projects were developed using the Waterfall Software Engineering Life Cycle Model, an Object-Oriented (OO) design method and the C++ programming language. This study indicates significant benefits from reuse in terms of reduced defect density and rework as well as increased productivity. (Also cross-referenced as UMIACS-TR-95–2)

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43. Victor R. Basili, Lionel Briand, S. Condon, Y.-M. Kim, Walcelio L. Melo, and J. Valett,
`Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases`,
Technical Report, University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science, College Park, MD, 20742–001. July 1995. CS-TR-3502. (Also cross-referenced as UMIACS-TR-95–79).
One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is how to estimate the cost of subsequent releases of software systems. Planning the next release, maximizing the increase in functionality and improving the quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental and inductive approach was used to build a model for predicting software maintenance releases in a large-scale software maintenance organization. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This organization is representative of many other software maintenance organizations. Over one hundred software systems totalling about 4.5 million lines of code are maintained by this organization. Many of these systems have been maintained for many years and regularly produce new releases. The maintenance costs in this organization have increased considerably over the last few years. This paper shows the predictive model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process. Lessons learned during the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program in this organization are also described and future work is outlined. Key words: software maintenance, measurement, experience factory, studies, quality improvement and goal/question/metric paradigms.

44. Victor Basili, Lionel Briand, Walcelio L. Melo,
`A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics`,
Technical Report, University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science, College Park, MD, 20770. April 1995. CS-TR-3443.
This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which we experimentally investigated the suite of Object-Oriented (OO) design metrics introduced by [Chidamber&Kemerer, 1994]. In order to do this, we assessed these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes. This study is complementary to [Lie&Henry, 1993] where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known OO analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on experimental results, the advantages and drawbacks of these OO metrics are discussed and suggestions for improvement are provided. Several of Chidamber&Kemerer's OO metrics appear to be adequate to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. We also showed that they are, on our data set, better predictors than “traditional” code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes. Key-words: Object-Oriented Metrics; Error Prediction Model; Object-Oriented Software Development; C++ Programming Language.

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45. D. G. Belanger and M. Wish editors,
`Special Issue of AT&T Technical Journal devoted to Software Productivity`,
vol. 69, no. 2, March / April? 1990.

46. Bradac, Mark G. and Perry, Dewayne E. and Votta, Lawrence G.,
`Prototyping a Process Monitoring Experiment`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, May 1994, vol 20, #4, pp 774–784,(Unrevised version published as 11261–920709–19TM.)

47. Lionel C. Briand, Victor R. Basili and Christopher J. Hetmanski,
`Providing an Empirical Basis for Optimizing the Verification and Testing Phases of Software Development`,
IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, Raleigh, NC, October 1992.

48. Lionel C. Briand and Victor R. Basili,
`Changes During the Maintenance Process`,
Conference on Software Maintenance 1992 (CSM-92), Orlando, FL, November 1992.

49. Lionel C. Briand, Victor R. Basili, and William M. Thomas,
`A Pattern Recognition Approach for Software Engineering Data Analysis`,
IEEE Transactions of Software Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp 931–942, November 1992.
In order to plan, control and evaluate the software development process, one needs to collect and analyze data in a meaningful way. Classical techniques for such analysis are not always well suited to software engineering data. In this paper we describe a pattern recognition approach for analyzing software engineering data, called Optimized Set Reduction (OSR), that addresses many of the problems associated with the usual approaches. Methods are discussed for using the technique for prediction, risk management and quality evaluation. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique for the particular application of software cost estimation.

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50. Lionel C. Briand, Sandro Morasca, and Victor Basili,
`Measuring and Assessing Maintainability at the End of High-Level Design`,
Conference on Software Maintenance 1993 and Tools Fair, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, September 27–30, 1993.

51. Lionel C. Briand, Victor R. Basili, and Christopher J. Hetmanski,
`Developing Interpretable Models for Identifying High Risk Software Components`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Volume 19, Number 11, pp 1028–1044, November 1993.
This paper presents the Optimized Set Reduction approach for dectecting error-proneess components. Our approach to classification is to measure the software system and build multivariate stochastic models for predicting high-risk system components. We present experimental results obtained by classifying Ada components into two classes: is or is not likely to generate faults during system and acceptance test. Also, we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the error-making process.

52. Lionel Briand, Sandro Morasca, Victor Basili,
Defining and Validating High-Level Design Metrics`,
Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Maryland, June 1994. CS-TR-3301.
This paper defines coupling and cohesion metrics to Ada design and validates these metrics using data from NASA Goddard project. The availability of significant metrics in the early phases of the software development process allows for a better management of the later phases, and a more effective quality assessment when software quality can still be easily affected by preventive or corrective actions. In this paper, we introduce and compare four strategies for defining high-level design metrics. They are based on different sets of assumptions (about the design process) related to a well defined experimental goal they help reach: identify error-prone software parts. In particular, we define ratio-scale metrics for cohesion and coupling that show interesting properties. An in-depth experimental validation, conducted on large scale projects demonstrates the usefulness of the metrics we define.

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53. L. Briand, W. L. Melo, C. Seaman, V.R. Basili,
`Characterizing and Assessing A Large-Scale Software Maintenance Organization`,
Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Maryland. September 1994. CS-TR-3354.
This paper discussses the use of a software process modeling notation for modeling Goddart`s change maintenance organization. One important component of a software process is the organizational context in which the process is enacted. This component is often missing or incomplete in current process modeling approaches. One technique for modeling this perspective is the Actor-Dependency (AD) Model. This paper reports on a case study which used this approach to analyze and assess a large software maintenance organization. Our goal was to identify the approach`s strengths and weaknesses while providing practical recommendations for improvement. The AD model was found to be very useful in capturing the important properties of the organizational context of the maintenance process, and aided in the understanding of the flaws found in this process. However, a number of opportunities for extending and improving the AD model were identified. Among others, there is a need to incorporate quantitative information to complement the qualitative model.

54. L. Briand, V.R. Basili, Y. Kim and D. Squier,
“A Change Causal Analysis Process to Characterize Software Maintenance Projects”,
IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, September 1994, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

55. L. Briand, S. Morasca, V.R. Basili.
“Goal-Driven Definition for Product Metrics Based on Properties”,
University of Maryland, College Park, (CS-TR-3346, UMIACS-TR-94–106.) (Submitted for publication.)

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56. L. Briand, S. Morasca, V.R. Basili,
`Property-based Software Engineering Measurement`,
Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Maryland. September 1994. CS-TR-3368
In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework to define several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. In addition, we have reviewed the literature on this subject and compared it with our work.

57. Lionel Briand, K. El Emand and Walcelio L. Melo,
`AINSI – An Inductive Software Process Improvement Method: Concrete Steps and Guidelines`,
Proc. of the ESI-ISCN '95 : Measurement and Training Based Process Improvement. September 11–12, Vienna, Austria, 1995.
Top-down approaches to process improvement based on generic “best practice” models (e.g., CMM, TRILLIUM, BOOTSTRAP, SPICE) have became popular. Despite the idiosyncrasies of each of these approaches, they share some common characteristics: all of them are based on numerous assumptions about what are best practices, and about the business goals of organizations and the problems they face. Other organizations, like the Software Engineering Laboratory of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, HP and CRIM in Canada, have adopted the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP). The QIP stipulates a more bottom-up and inductive approach to process improvement. The focus of this paradigm is to first understand what processes exist in the organization and to determine what causes the most significant problems. Based on this, opportunities for improvement are devised, and empirical studies are conducted to evaluate potential solutions. In this paper, we present a method, named AINSI (An INductive Software process Improvment method), which defines general but concrete steps and guidelines for putting in place the QIP. This method is the result of the collective experiences of the authors and integrates many lessons learned from process improvement efforts in different environments. It also integrates many complementary techniques such as qualitative analysis, methods for data collection (e.g., the Goal / Question / Metric? paradigm), and quantitative evaluation.

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58. Carolyn Brophy and Victor R. Basili,
`Lessons Learned in the Implementation Phase of A Large Ada Project`,
6th National Conference for Ada Technology, Arlington, VA, March 1988.

59. B. G. Cain and J. O. Coplien,
`A Role-Based Empirical Process Modeling Environment`,
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Software Process: Continuous Software Process Improvement, Berlin, February 1993, pp. 125 – 133.

60. Gianluigi Caldiera and Victor R. Basili,
`Identifying and Qualifying Reusable Software Components`,
IEEE Computer, February 1991, pp.61–70.

61. G. Cantone, A. Cimitile and B. Fadini,
`Analyzing and Re-structurizing Programs`,
Rivista di Informatica, Vo. 30, No. 2, 1983.

62. G. Cantone,
`Reusing Temporal Properties of Hard Real-time Software`,
Proc. of IEE Int. conf. on Software Engineering for Real-time Systems, Cirencester (GB), October 1991.

63. G. Cantone,
`Advanced Software Factory: Models and Experiences for the Improvement`,
CQS Int. Conf. on Quality Software, Milan (I), October 1991.

64. G. Cantone,
`Static Models and Simulation Engine for Mission-critical Distributed Software`,
NATO Advanced Study Institute, October 1992 (to be published by Springer-Verlag, Lecture Series, 1993).

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65. D. C. Carr, A. B. Dandekar, and D. E. Perry,
`Experiments in Process Interface Visualization and Analysis`,
in preparation

66. J. S. Colson and E. M. Prell,
`Total Quality Management for a Large Software Project`,
AT&T Technical Journal, vol. 71, no. 3, May / June? 1992, pp. 48 – 56.

67. Michael Daskalantonakis, Victor R. Basili and Robert Yacobellis,
`A Method for Assessing Software Measurement Technology`,
Quality Engineering 3(1), pp. 27–40, 1990–91.

68. Alex Delis and Victor R. Basili,
`Data Binding Tool: a tool for Measurement Based Ada Source Reusability and Design Assessment`,
International Journal of Software Engineering and Data Engineering, (to appear in 1994).

69. Prem Devanbu, Sakke Karstu, Walcelio L. Melo and William Thomas,
`Analytical and Empirical Evaluation of Software Reuse Metrics`,
Technical Report, University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science, College Park, MD, 20770. July 1995. CS-TR-3505. (Also available as UMIACS-95–82).
How much can be saved by using pre-existing (or somewhat modified) software components when developing new software systems? With the increasing adoption of reuse methods and technologies, this question becomes critical. However, directly tracking the actual cost savings due to reuse is difficult. A worthy goal would be to develop a method of measuring the savings indirectly by analyzing the code for reuse of components. The focus of this paper is to evaluate how well several published software reuse metrics measure the time, money and quality benefits of software reuse. We conduct this evaluation both analytically and empirically. On the analytic front, we first develop some properties that should arguably hold of any measure of time, money and quality benefit due to reuse. We assess several existing software reuse metrics using these properties. Empirically, we constructed a toolset (using GEN++) to gather data on all published reuse metrics from C++ code; then, using some productivity and quality data from «nearly replicated'' student projects at the University of Maryland, we evaluate the relationship the known metrics and the process data. The results show that different reuse metrics can be used as predictors of different quality attributes, and suggest possible directions for improving the known measures.

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70. Eick, Stephen G. and Loader, Clive R. and Long, M. David and Vander Wiel, Scott and Votta, Lawrence G.,
`Estimating Software Fault Content Before Coding`,
International Conference on Software Engineering, May 1992, pp 59–65
Describes the use of capture-recapture sampling techniques to estimate the remaining undetected defects in a design. The work describes initial empirical attempts to validate the measure. Preliminary results are presented. (Unrevised version published as 11265–910916–01TM.)

71. S. G. Eick, J. L. Steffen, and E. E. Sumner, Jr.,
`Seesoft -A Tool for Visualizing Line-Oriented Software Statistics`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-18, no. 11, November 1992, pp. 957 – 968.

72. Stephen G. Eick and Clive R. Loader and and Lawrence G. Votta and Scott Vander Wiel,
`How Many Errors Remain In A Software Design Document After Inspection?`,
Interface, 93 Conference Proceedings, San Diego, California, March 1993, pp 195–202
The paper gives the derivation of many of the estimators for remaining defects in a design document using capture-recapture population eahstimation models. Particular attention is paid to the mathematics and assumptions made to derive the different models.

73. John Gannon, Elizabeth Katz and Victor R. Basili,
`Metrics for Ada Packages: An Initial Study`,
Communications of the ACM, vol. 19, #7, pp 616–623, July 1986.

74. V. Grassi, L. Donatiello and G. Iazeolla,
`Performability Evaluation of Multicomponent Fault Tolerant Software`,
IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol. 37, April 1988.

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75. K. Harada and Victor R. Basili,
`Structured Programming Language for Compiler Writing: SIMPL-T (in Japanese)`,
Information Processing, Information Processing Society of Japan, vol. 17,#3, March 1976, pp. 222–228.

76. M. Heikkinen, R. Lintulampi, and P. Pulli,
`Employing Spiral Model, Prototyping and QFD in Graphical CASE Tool Development`,
Eurographics-91, Vienna 1991, Graphics Research & Development in EC Programmes. Ed. J.Encernaco. ISSN 1017–4656, pp. 53–66.

77. M. Heikkinen and T. Piironen
`Using concurrent engineering in embedded software development first experiences`.
Second International Conference on Integrated Logistics & Concurrent Engineering, ilce`94, Montpellier, France, 7 – 11 February 1994, pp. 315–324.
The paper presents initial experiences on applying concurrent engineering (CE) concepts to embedded software development for a machine vision system. The CE principles applied include concurrent running of pilots and the development work, assumption-reconciliation in synchronising concurrent development tasks, use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Risk Function Deployment (RFD) in decision making and use of prototypes in early validation of the critical system components as well as in supporting communication within cross-discipline teams.

78. S. Horing chief editor,
Special Issue of AT&T Technical Journal devoted to Software Productivity,
vol. 67, no. 4, July / August? 1988

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79. W. S. Humphrey,
`Managing the Software Process`,
Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1988, pp. 171 – 190.

80. G. Iazeolla and F. Marinuzzi,
`A Methodology and Tool for Performance Analysis of Parallel Systems and Alghorithms`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (to appear).

81. T. Ihme,
`Reuse-oriented structure analysis for embedded systems`,
VTT Publication 85, ISBN 951–4063–8, Espoo, 1991.

82. D.R. Jeffery & M.J. Lawrence,
`An Inter-Organizational Comparison of Programming Productivity`,
Proc. 4th International Conference on Software Engineering, ACM and IEEE, September, 1979, Munich.

83. D.R. Jeffery & M.J. Lawrence,
`Some Issues in the Measurement and Control of Programming Productivity`,
Information and Management, 4,4 September, 1981 North-Holland, Amsterdam.

84. D.R. Jeffery & M.J. Lawrence,
`Commercial Programming Productivity – An Empirical Look at Intuition`,
The Australian Computer Journal, February 1983.

85. D.R. Jeffery & M.J. Lawrence,
`Managing Programming Productivity`,
Journal of Systems and Software, 5,1, February, 1985, New York.

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86. D.R. Jeffery
`A Software Development Productivity Model for MIS Environments`,
Journal of Systems And Software, Elsevier, New York. June, 1987.

87. D.R. Jeffery,
`Time-Sensitive Cost Models in the Commercial MIS Environment`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Washington D.C., July, 1987

88. D.R. Jeffery & V.R. Basili,
`Validating The Tame Resource Data Model`,
Proc. 10th International Conf. on S`ware Eng., IEEE Computer Society, Singapore, April, 1988.

89. D.R. Jeffery & G. Low,
`Function Points in the Estimation and Evaluation of the Software Process`
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering,Vol. SE-16,7, IEEE Computer Society, Washington D.C. Jan, 1990

90. D.R. Jeffery & G. Low,
`Software Development Productivity and Back-End Case Tools`,
Information and Software Technology, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K., 33,9 November, 1991.

91. D.R. Jeffery & G. Low,
`A Comparison of Function Point Counting Techniques`,
IEEE Transaction on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, May, 1993.

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92. S. Kusumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Kikuno, and K. Torii
`On a Measurement Environment for Controlling Software Development Activities,`
IEICE Transactions on Communications Electronics Information and Systems, vol. E74, no.5, 1991, pp.1051–1054.
This paper describes system architecture of a measurement environment that helps programmer productivity by automatically collecting and analyzing data about software development activities. Based on the result of analysis, the environment gives programmers feedback so that they can recognize and improve their activities.

93. S. Kusumoto, K. Matsumoto, T. Kikuno, and K. Torii
`A New Metric for Cost Effectiveness of Software Reviews`
IEICE Transactions on Communications Electronics Information and Systems, vol. E75-D, no.5, 1992, pp.674–680.
This paper describes a new metric for evaluating the cost effectiveness of software reviews. The proposed metric is based on the degree to which costs needed for detecting all faults from software are reduced by software reviews in a project. Experimental results show the validity and usefulness of the proposed metric compared with the conventional metrics.

94. F. Lanubile and G. Visaggio
`Function recovery based on program slicing`,
Proceedings of Conference on Software Maintenance, Montreal, Canada, 1993.
Two modified definitions of Weisers slicing are proposed to locate environment-dependent and domain-dependent functions from old software systems.The slicing techniques have been verified on COBOL programs using a commercial tool.

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95. F. Lanubile, and G. Visaggio
`Decision-driven maintenance`,
Journal of Software Maintenance: Research and Practice, vol.7, 1995 (to appear).
An approach to design recording is presented with the purpose to improve the impact analysis task. A traceability graph integrates the life-cycle work products and the decisions involved in the transformation process. An empirical investigation is carried out to characterize software systems with respect to design and implementation decisions.

96. K. Matsumoto, S. Kusumoto, T. Kikuno, and K. Torii
`An Experimental Evaluation of Team Performance in Program Development based on Model – Extension of Programmer Performance Model -,`
Journal of Information Processing, vol.15, no.3, 1992, pp.466–473.
This paper proposes a model for quantitatively evaluating team performance in software development. The model is defined by extending the programmer performance model which is based on a concept of error life span. Experimental results show the usefulness of the model. Moreover, an optimal team organization strategy based on the model is also presented.

97. K. Matsumoto, S. Kusumoto, T. Kikuno and K. Torii
`A New Framework for Measuring Software Processes`
Proc. International Software Metrics Symposium}, May 1993, pp.108–118.
This paper proposes a new framework of measuring software development processes and validates its effectiveness by examples. The key idea of this proposed framework is that all activities on measurement could be explained by a mathematical model of the process to be measured. Experimental evaluations show that the proposed framework can make it possible to measure a software development process in a systematic way.

98. N. Monina Panlilio-Yap and Victor R. Basili,
`Finding Relationships Between Effort and Other Variables in the SEL`,
IEEE COMPSAC, October 1985.

99. J.D. Musa, A. Iannino, and K. Okumoto
`Software Reliability: Measurement, Prediction, Application`,
New York, Mc Graw- Hill? Book Co., 1987.

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100. M. Oivo,
`Knowledge-based Support for Embedded Computer Software Analysis and Design`,
VTT Publication 68, ISBN 951–38–3763–7, Espoo, September 1990, 82 pages.
A methodology and implementation of a knowledge-based support system for embedded computer software analysis and design is presented. It supports Real-Time Structured Analysis and Design (RT-SA/SD) methodology by helping in the analysis and design process itself. It consists of an intelligent model editor, a knowledge-base for building an internal logical model of the RT-SA/SD designs and a methodology rule base for analyzing the quality of the design.

101. D.E. Perry,
`Policy-Directed Coordination and Cooperation`,
Proceedings of the 7th International Software Process Workshop, Yountville, October, 1991

102. D.E. Perry and C.S. Stieg,
`Software Faults in Evolving a Large, Real-Time System: a Case Study`,
Proceedings European Software Engineering Conference, Garmisch, September 1993.

103. Perry, Dewayne E. and Staudenmayer, Nancy and Votta, Lawrence G.
`People, Organizations, and Process Improvement`,
IEEE Software, July 1994, pp36–45, (Results part of BL0112650–930915–18TM.)

104. Porter, Adam and Votta, Lawrence G.
`An Experiment to Assess Different Defect Detection Methods for Software Requirements Inspections`,
International Conference on Software Engineering, May 1994, pp 103–112, (Unrevised version published as BL0112650–940429–15TM.)

105. Porter, Adam and Siy, Harvey and Toman, Carol A. and Votta, Lawrence G.
`An Experiment to Assess the Cost-Benefits of Code Inspections in Large Software Development`,
AT&T Bell Laboratories, September 1994, BL0112650–940906–42TM, (Submitted to the Seventeenth International Conference on Software Engineering, Seattle, WA.)

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106. P. Pulli and M. Heikkinen
`Concurrent Engineering for Real-Time Systems`,
IEEE Software 10(1993)6: pp. 39–44.

107. P. Pulli,
`Concurrent engineering of real-time systems through heterogeneous prototypes`,
In: Real Time Computing. (eds. W.A. Malang., A.D. Stoyenko). NATO ASI Series F. vol. 127(1994); p. 514. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
Introduces concept of heterogeneous development paradigm where different parts of the system may represent different levels of abstraction during development. This loose coupling of subsystems during development is supported by executable graphical models of subsystems. The approach presented in this paper has been developed in the IPTES project (EP5570) funded by the European Commission and Technical Development Centre of Finland (TEKES).

108. P. Pulli, M. Heikkinen
`Value function deployment in a software process`,
Second International Conference on Software Quality Management, SQM`94, Edinburgh, UK, 26 – 28 July 1994. Computational Mechanics Publications. Software Quality Management II, vol 1: Managing Quality Systems, (eds. M. Ross, C.A. Brebbia., G. Staples., J. Stapleton), pp. 475–483.
The role of value functions, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Risk Function Deployment (RFD) is discussed. Value functions are able to increase the visibility of the evolving software product, reduce change penalty, and bring closer discipline specialists. Use of value functions enables new management approaches to software development process that are more concurrent and goal-oriented rather than activity-based and serialised.

109. James Ramsey and Victor R. Basili
`Structural Coverage of Functional Testing`,
IEEE 8th International Conference on Software Engineering, London, Eng., August 1985.

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110. Connie Loggia Ramsey and Victor R. Basili
`ARROWSMITH-P – A Prototype Expert System for Software Engineering Management`,
IEEE Expert Systems in Government Symposium, October 23–25, 1985.

111. Connie Ramsey and Victor R. Basili
`An Evaluation of Expert Systems for Software Engineering Management`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, June 1989, pp 747–759.

112. H. Dieter Rombach,
`A Controlled Experiment on the Impact of Software Structure on Maintainability`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-13, no. 3, March 1987, pp.344–354.

113. H. Dieter Rombach and Victor R. Basili,
`Quantitative Assessment of Software Maintenance: An Industrial Case Study`,
Conference on Software Maintenance, Austin, TX, September 1987.

114. H. D. Rombach,
`MVP-L: A Language for Process Modeling in-the-Large`,
submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions for Software Engineering, 1992 [also available as Technical Report, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, 1992].

115. R. Savola, T. Ihme, M. Heikkinen, M. Salmela and P. Pulli
`Object-oriented enhancement of real-time software using a heterogeneous re-engineering approach`,
Proceedings of the 6th Euromicro Workshop on Real-Time Systems, Sweden, 15 – 17 June 1994, pp. 98–103.
A technique for incremental modernisation and enhancement of an existing procedural real-time software to an object-oriented one is presented. In this approach, object structure and additional new features can be validated interactively and iteratively using heterogeneous graphical animation. Different parts of the system may present different modelling levels during the enhancement.

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116. R. Savola, M. Salmela, V. Seppanen and P. Pulli
`A concurrent simulation and development architecture`,
11th Workshop on Standards for the Interoperability of Distributed Simulations. Orlando, Florida, 26–30 September 1994. 7 p.
We present a visionary architectural approach where heterogeneous and incremental prototyping, visualization techniques, concurrent engineering techniques, and change management and propagation are integrated into a single development framework to support the development of Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) applications as a series of evolving prototypes.

117. Richard Selby, Victor R. Basili and Terry Baker
`Cleanroom Software Development: An Empirical Evaluation`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, September 1987, pp 1027–1037.

118. Richard W. Selby and Victor R. Basili
`Analyzing Error Prone System Structure`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, February 1991. pp. 141–152.

119. V. Seppanen, M. Heikkinen and R. Lintulampi
`Spade – Towards CASE Tools That Can Guide Design`,
Lecture Notes in Computer Science 498, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0–387–54059–8, 1991.

120. V. Seppanen,
`Acquisition, organization and reuse of software design knowledge`,
Software Engineering Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, July 1992, pp. 238 – 246.

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121. K. Shima, K. Matsumoto, and K. Torii
`A Mathematical Comparison of Software Breeding and Community Error Recovery in Multiversion Software`
Proc. 4th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, November 1993, pp.192–201.
This paper presents Software Breeding, a new approach for improving the reliability of multiversion software, and the reliability model of Software Breeding software. The parametric analysis of the reliability model shows that Software Breeding makes multiversion software more reliable than Community Error Recovery.

122. Y. Takada, M. Thompson and K. Torii,
`Better Predictions Even in Reduced Input Variable Numbers Using Neural Networks in Software Development`
Proc. 16th Software Engineering Workshop, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, December 1991.
The paper presents a new framework for developing prediction models using artificial neural networks. In the framework, an initial model which has many predictor variables is gradually reduced to an objective model which has a reasonable number of predictor variables.

123. Y. Takada, K. Matsumoto and K. Torii
`A Programmer Performance Measure based on Programmer State Transitions in Testing and Debugging Process`
Proc. 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, May 1994, pp.123–132.
The paper presents a system which automatically monitors programmer activities. The paper also presents a programmer debugging performance measure based on data monitored by the system.

124. G. Tate, J. Verner & D.R. Jeffery
`CASE as a Testbed for Productivity Improvement`
Communications of the ACM, April 1992.

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125. W. Thomas, A. Delis, and V.R. Basili
`An Evaluation of Ada Source Code Reuse`,
In the Proc. of the Ada-Europe International Conf., Zandvoort, The Netherlands, June, 1992
This paper presents the results of a metric--based investigation into the nature and benefits of reuse in an Ada development environment. Four medium scale Ada projects developed in one organization over a three year period were analyzed. The study indicates benefits of reuse in terms of reduced error density and increased productivity. The Ada generic features are observed as an enabler of reuse at higher levels of abstraction. Finally, using several metrics, we identify trends indicating an improving reuse process.

126. K. Torii
`A New Framework for Software Quality Assurance`,
Proc. First International Workshop on Software Quality Improvement, February 1989, pp.86-91.
This paper describes a new framework for software quality assurance. The framework consists of three views (the user`s view, the manager`s view and the engineer`s view) for software quality and software metrics. The results of experimental evaluations show that quality of resulting products can be improved effectively and 35.4% reduction is realized in development cost by applying the framework.

127. K. Torii
`A Measurement Environment and Some Results at Class Experiments`,
Proc. Second International Workshop on Software Quality Improvement, January 1990, pp.92-95.
This paper describes the results of some experimental projects in which various kinds of data have been collected and analyzed by GINGER, a measuremnet environment. GINGER can collect data and analyze data based on the real data during the coding, debugging and testing. For example, GINGER can monitor the activities of developers and provide the developers with information on the quantity/quality of their products.

128. K. Torii and K. Matsumoto
`Software Education Should Go from Synthesis to Analysis by a Measurement Environment`,
Proc. IFIP WG3.4/SEARCC Working Conference --Software Engineering Education--, 1993, pp.245-253.
This paper describes the current state of software education in academic and industrial fields where programmers are novices. It argues that analysis is an important activity in such educational fields and that measurement is a key component in improving programmers` (or students`) abilities. In this context, this paper proposes a measurement tool for use in software education.

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129. K. Torii and Y. Takada
`Using a Customer-Coordinator-Developer Model to Develop Quantitative Approach of Quality Assurance`,
International Perspectives in Software Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, 1993, pp.28-32.
This paper presents a model, consisting of three partners of customers, coordinators and developers, for a quantitative quality assurance. The coordinator, an experimenced engineer, performs an important role to communicate information between customers and developers using a mapping table. This paper also show a prototype system supporting coordinators.

130. K. Torii
`Analysis in Software Engineering`,
Proc. First Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, December 1994 (to appear).
This paper describes the importance of analysis in software engineering. Analysis is used in wide meaning here, such as retrospecting statistically research topics in software engineering, and analysis of the software gap between Japan and US other than the measurement based analysis.

131. Vander Wiel, Scott and Votta, Lawrence G.
`Assessing Software Designs Using Capture-Recapture Methods`,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, November 1993, vol 19, #11, pp 1045-1054, (Unrevised version published as BL0112150-921230-15TM.)

132. Votta, Lawrence G.
`Comparing One Formal to One Informal Process Description`,
Proceedings of the Eighth International Software Process Workshop, Wadern, Germany, March 1993, pp 145-147
Describes a case study where the Mi/Scacchi Articulator Model for describing a process is used to describe and model several processes used in software development for 5ESS. Several of the strengths of formal models are shown.

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133. Votta, Lawrence G.
`Does Every Inspection Need a Meeting?`,
ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, December 1993, vpl 18, #5, pp 107-114, (Unrevised version published as BL0112650-930416-09TM.)

134. Votta, Lawrence G.
`By the Way, Has Anyone Studied Any Real Programmers, Yet?`,
Proceedings of the Ninth International Software Process Workshop, Airlie, Virginia, October 1994, (Published as technical memorandum BL0112650-941122-55TM.)

135. L.G. Votta and S. Vander Weil
`Assessing Software Designs Using Capture-Recapture Methods`,
to be published in the special issue of IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering devoted to software reliability.

136. A.L. Wolf and D. S. Rosenblum
`A Study in Software Process Data Capture and Analysis`,
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Software Process: Continuous Software Process Improvement, Berlin, February 1993, pp. 115 - 124.

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